Deutsche Version

Independent Working in Classroom

Structure of a lesson

Small islands for independent learning can be formed by skilful structuring of the lesson. (Click on the image to enlarge it)

Structure of a lesson
  • Task allocation: It is normally allocated by the teacher. Repeating the cycle multiple times allows students to apply the knowledge acquired for a new task or building such knowledge collectively. The task allocation does not include preparing a sketch of possible solution approaches.
  • Independent processing: Students work independently (individually or in small groups) for relatively long periods. The teacher acts as an observer and adviser (assistance for self-help). During this phase, the teacher can select initial solution approaches or methods and determine the candidates for presentation.
  • Presentation and comparisons: Selected students present their solutions. These presentations are then compared and discussed. The teacher must not intervene as far as possible and moderate only when it is essential. Even the solutions that do not reach the goal must be discussed. Ideas that have diverted from the original path may be interesting.
  • Comparison and summary: The teacher should now take over and summarise the results. Essential additions can be made if required; new terms and formalisms can also be added.

The concept is strongly based on Dialogue-based teaching by Peter Gallin and Urs Ruf.
More information about "Dialogue-based learning" >>

Tasks that encourage creativity and independent thinking

A functioning learning cycle requires suitable tasks. A variety of ideas and solutions can be developed only if the tasks are allocated such that narrow boundaries are not set, i.e. they are designed with adequate openness.
Module 1 contains examples and suggestions which you can use for creating interesting and multi-faceted tasks without great effort.
To module 1 >>

Organisation of self-learning phases

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P. Baptist, Experiencing Mathematics, in Baptist, Miller, Raab (Eds.), Towards New Teaching in Mathematics, Part I, 2011